The first refers primarily to the main cluster of settlements in the valley of the Eurotas River: Herodotus seems to denote by it the Mycenaean Greek citadel at Therapnein contrast to the lower town of Sparta. It could be used synonymously with Sparta, but typically it was not.
History Origins of the Magyars It is generally believed that Hungary came into existence when the Magyars, a Finno-Ugric people, began occupying the middle basin of the Danube River in the late 9th century.
The subsequent history of Dacia is unrecorded. The central plains had formed the bases for nomadic immigrant peoples from the steppes north of the Black Sea—Huns, Bulgars, Avars —some of whom extended their domination farther afield.
The Avars, who dominated the basin in the 6th through 8th centuries, were crushed about by Charlemagne. Another, Moraviaextended as far east as the Gran, or Garam HronRiver and openly defied its Carolingian overlord.
Later research has suggested that this 9th-century Moravia may have been located on the southern Morava River in present-day northern Serbia. The Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria exercised loose authority over the south and east of the Carpathian Basin.
They were driven, at an uncertain date and by unrecorded causes, southward onto the steppes, where they adopted the life of peripatetic herders.
In the 9th century they were based on the lower Don, ranging over the steppes to the west of that river. They then comprised a federation of hordes, or tribes, each under a hereditary chieftain and each composed of a varying number of clans, the members of which shared a real or imagined blood kinship.
All clan members were free, but the community included slaves taken in battle or in raids. There were seven Magyar tribes, but other elements were part of the federation, including three tribes of Turkic Khazar s the Kavars.
From the Slavic pronunciation of this term, the name Hungarian is derived, with the initial H added because they were thought by some scholars to be descendants of the Huns. Arnulf, seal, 9th century; in the Bavarian National Museum, Munich.
The band sent to Arnulf reported back that the plains across the Carpathian Mountains would form a suitable new homeland that could be easily conquered and defended from the rear. Prior to the conquest, the Magyars lived under a dual kingship that included a sacred ruler with minimal powers called the kende and a de facto leader called the gyula.
The Magyars destroyed the Moravian state in and in the next year occupied Pannonia, having defeated a German force sent against them. They were then firmly established in the whole centre of the basin, over which their tribes and their associates distributed themselves.
The periphery was guarded by outposts, which were gradually pushed forward, chiefly to the north and the east. The Christian kingdom During the next half century, the Magyars were chiefly known in Europe for the forays they made across the continent, either as mercenaries in the service of warring princes or in search of booty for themselves—treasure or slaves for domestic use or sale.
Terrifying to others, their mode of life was not always profitable. Indeed, their raiding forces suffered a number of severe reverses, culminating in a disastrous defeat at the hands of the German king Otto I in at the Battle of Lechfeldoutside Augsburg in present-day Germany.
By that time the wild blood of the first invaders was thinning out, and new influences, in particular Christianityhad begun to circulate. Both the Eastern and Western churches strove to draw the peoples of east-central Europe into their orbits.
The Magyars had established pacific, almost friendly relations with Bavaria. In he sent an embassy to the Holy Roman emperor Otto II at Quedlinburg Germanyand in he and his family were received into the Western church.
With the help of heavily armed Bavarian knights, he crushed his rivals for the ducal office. The event was of immeasurable importance, for not only did Hungary enter the spiritual community of the Western world but it did so without having to recognize the political suzerainty of the Holy Roman Empire.
This was possible because Sylvester, who extended papal protection to Hungary, held great sway with the emperor, Otto IIIwho had once been his pupil. Stephen then effected the conversion of his people to Christianity, establishing a network of 10 archiepiscopal and episcopal sees, which he reinforced with lavishly endowed monastic foundations.
A statue of Saint Stephen, the first king of Hungary, overlooks the city of Budapest. The tribes, as units, disappeared, but the fundamental social stratification was not altered.
The descendants in the male line of the old conquerors and elements later equated with them remained a privileged class, answerable in judgment only to the king or his representative and entitled to appear in general assemblage.
Their lands—which at this time, since the economy was mainly pastoral, were held by clans or subclans in semicommunal ownership—were inalienable, except for proved delinquency, and free of any obligation. The only duty required by the state of members of this class was that of military service on call.
They were allowed to retain their slaves, although Stephen freed his own. All land not held by this class—then more than half the whole—belonged to the crown, which could indeed donate it at will.Kevin MacDonald is Professor of Psychology, California State University (Long Beach), and the author of A People That Shall Dwell Alone (), Separation and Its Discontents (), and The Culture of Critique (), all published by Praeger.
Both Chic and Tabatha are Chief Adepts of the Golden Dawn as re-established by Israel Regardie. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, of which Chic is the G.H. Imperator, and Tabatha is the G.H. Cancellaria, is an international Order with Temples in several countries. You may have arrived at this page because you followed a link to one of our old platforms that cannot be redirected.
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