Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics.
Flag of the British East India Company— At the time of the Declaration of Independence in Julythe Continental Congress would not legally adopt flags with "stars, white in a blue field" for another year.
The flag contemporaneously known as "the Continental Colors " has historically been referred to as the first national flag. However, an East India Company flag could have from nine to 13 stripes, and was not allowed to be flown outside the Indian Ocean. He said to George Washington"While the field of your flag must be new in the details of its design, it need not be entirely new in its elements.
There is already in use a flag, I refer to the flag of the East India Company. Some colonists also felt that the Company could be a powerful ally in the American War of Independenceas they shared similar aims and grievances against the British government tax policies.
Colonists therefore flew the Company's flag, to endorse the Company. Mullets were comparatively rare in early modern heraldry, but an example of mullets representing territorial divisions predating the U. While scholars still argue about this, tradition holds that the new flag was first hoisted in June by the Continental Army at the Middlebrook encampment.
Massachusetts reinforcements brought news of the adoption by Congress of the official flag to Fort Schuyler. Soldiers cut up their shirts to make the white stripes; scarlet material to form the red was secured from red flannel petticoats of officers' wives, while material for the blue union was secured from Capt.
Abraham Swartwout's blue cloth coat. A voucher is extant that Capt. Swartwout of Dutchess County was paid by Congress for his coat for the flag. Navy, featuring 13 six-pointed stars arranged in rows. In the late 18th century, the notion of a national flag did not yet exist, or was only nascent.
The flag resolution appears between other resolutions from the Marine Committee. Each regiment was to carry the national standard in addition to its regimental standard. The national standard was not a reference to the national or naval flag. Some flag makers arranged the stars into one big star, in a circle or in rows and some replaced a state's star with its initial.
This flag, however, is more likely a flag used for celebrations of anniversaries of the nation's birthday. Experts have dated the earliest known example of this flag to be in a painting by John Trumbull.
Most were individually crafted rather than mass-produced.
While there are many examples of star arrangements, some of those flags included blue stripes  as well as red and white. Benjamin Franklin and John Adamsin a letter dated October 3,to Ferdinand I of the Two Siciliesdescribed the American flag as consisting of "13 stripes, alternately red, white, and blue, a small square in the upper angle, next the flag staff, is a blue field, with 13 white stars, denoting a new Constellation.
Navy ships including the well-documented flags of the Serapis and the Alliance. The Serapis flag had three rows of eight-pointed stars with stripes that were red, white, and blue.
The flag for the Alliance, however, had five rows of eight-pointed stars with 13 red and white stripes, and the white stripes were on the outer edges. Hopkinson was the only person to have made such a claim during his own lifetime, when he sent a letter and several bills to Congress for his work.
Hopkinson initially wrote a letter to Congress, via the Continental Board of Admiralty, on May 25, However, in three subsequent bills to Congress, Hopkinson asked to be paid in cash, but he did not list his U.
Instead, he asked to be paid for designing the "great Naval Flag of the United States" in the first bill; the "Naval Flag of the United States" in the second bill; and "the Naval Flag of the States" in the third, along with the other items.
The flag references were generic terms for the naval ensign that Hopkinson had designed, that is, a flag of seven red stripes and six white ones.
The predominance of red stripes made the naval flag more visible against the sky on a ship at sea. By contrast, Hopkinson's flag for the United States had seven white stripes, and six red ones — in reality, six red stripes laid on a white background.
His Admiralty Seal had seven red stripes;  whereas, his second U. Seal proposal had seven white ones. Remnants of Hopkinson's U.
The apocryphal story credits Betsy Ross for sewing the first flag from a pencil sketch handed to her by George Washington. No evidence for this exists either in the diaries of George Washington nor in the records of the Continental Congress.
Indeed, nearly a century passed before Ross' grandson, William Canby, first publicly suggested the story in This forgery, Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus, was completed in To produce it, van Meegeren studied seventeenth-century pigment formulas, incorporated volatile flower oils in his pigments to create hardness, and used badger-hair brushes (a single modern bristle embedded in the paint would give him away) on canvas recycled from an unimportant seventeenth-century painting.
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