A history of the kurds an ethnic group without a state

Although estimates of their precise numbers vary, the Kurds are reckoned to be the fourth largest ethnic group in the Middle East, following Arabs, Turks, and Persians.

A history of the kurds an ethnic group without a state

Origin of the Kurds "The land of Karda" is mentioned on a Sumerian clay-tablet dated to the 3rd millennium B. This land was inhabited by "the people of Su" who dwelt in the southern regions of Lake Van ; The philological connection between "Kurd" and "Karda" is uncertain but the relationship is considered possible.

Akkadians were attacked by nomads coming through Qartas territory at the end of 3rd millennium B. Akkadians distinguished them as Guti. They conquered Mesopotamia in B. After initially sustaining a heavy defeat, Ardashir I was successful in subjugating the Kurds. O son of a Kurd, raised in the tents of the Kurds, who gave you permission to put a crown on your head?

He found it heavily fortified, and guarded by three legions and a large body of Kurdish archers. Thereafter he had the strategically located city repaired, provisioned and garrisoned with his best troops. He lived in the 4th century, during the reign of Shapur II, and during his travels is said to have encountered Mar Abdishoa deacon and martyr, who, after having been questioned of his origins by Mar Qardagh and his Marzobansstated that his parents were originally from an Assyrian village called Hazza, but were driven out and subsequently settled in Tamanon, a village in the land of the Kurds, identified as being in the region of Mount Judi.

He also mentions the Persian troops who fought against Musa chief of Hurdanaye in the region of Qardu in According to Barhebreausa king appeared to the Kurdanaye and they rebelled against the Arabs in Michael the Syrian considered them as paganfollowers of mahdi and adepts of Magi anism.

Their mahdi called himself Christ and the Holy Ghost. However, in the High Middle Agesthe Kurdish ethnic identity gradually materialized, as one can find clear evidence of the Kurdish ethnic identity and solidarity in texts of the 12th and 13th century, [64] though, the term was also still being used in the social sense.

Itakh won this war and executed many of the Kurds. During the time of rule of this dynasty, Kurdish chief and ruler, Badr ibn Hasanwaih, established himself as one of the most important emirs of the time. The Rawadid — ruled Azerbaijan. Kurds would hereafter be used in great numbers in the armies of the Zengids.

Saladin led the Muslims to recapture the city of Jerusalem from the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin ; also frequently clashing with the Hashashins. The Ayyubid dynasty lasted until when the Ayyubid sultanate fell to Mongolian invasions.

Safavid period Further information: Safavid dynasty The Safavid Dynasty, established inalso established its rule over Kurdish-inhabited territories. The paternal line of this family actually had Kurdish roots, tracing back to Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolaha dignitary who moved from Kurdistan to Ardabil in the 11th century.

For the next years, many of the Kurds found themselves living in territories that frequently changed hands between Ottoman Turkey and Iran during the protracted series of Ottoman-Persian Wars. The Safavid king Ismail I r. Thereafter, a large number of Kurds were deported to Khorasannot only to weaken the Kurds, but also to protect the eastern border from invading Afghan and Turkmen tribes.

Due to his efforts in reforming the declining Iranian economy, he has been called the "Safavid Amir Kabir " in modern historiography. Another Kurdish statesman, Ganj Ali Khanwas close friends with Abbas I, and served as governor in various provinces and was known for his loyal service.

Kurds - Wikipedia

Zand period Further information: Ultimately, it was Karim Khana Laki general of the Zand tribe who would come to power. By this time however, the Qajars had already progressed greatly, having taken a number of Zand territories. Lotf Ali Khan made multiple successes before ultimately succumbing to the rivaling faction.

Iran and all its Kurdish territories would hereby be incorporated in the Qajar Dynasty. The Kurdish tribes present in Baluchistan and some of those in Fars are believed to be remnants of those that assisted and accompanied Lotf Ali Khan and Karim Khan, respectively. He divided the territory into sanjaks or districts, and, making no attempt to interfere with the principle of heredity, installed the local chiefs as governors.

He also resettled the rich pastoral country between Erzerum and Erivanwhich had lain in waste since the passage of Timurwith Kurds from the Hakkari and Bohtan districts. For the next centuries, from the Peace of Amasya until the first half of the 19th century, several regions of the wide Kurdish homelands would be contested as well between the Ottomans and the neighbouring rival successive Iranian dynasties Safavids, AfsharidsQajars in the frequent Ottoman-Persian Wars.

The Ottoman centralist policies in the beginning of the 19th century aimed to remove power from the principalities and localities, which directly affected the Kurdish emirs. Bedirhan Bey was the last emir of the Cizre Bohtan Emirate after initiating an uprising in against the Ottomans to protect the current structures of the Kurdish principalities.

Social organization

Although his uprising is not classified as a nationalist one, his children played significant roles in the emergence and the development of Kurdish nationalism through the next century.

Kurdish nationalism emerged after World War I with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire which had historically successfully integrated but not assimilated the Kurds, through use of forced repression of Kurdish movements to gain independence.

Revolts did occur sporadically but only in with the uprising led by Sheik Ubeydullah did the Kurds as an ethnic group or nation make demands.The Kurds have a tale of Turkish woe that extends back into history much further.

Kurds have earned the unfortunate moniker of being the largest ethnic group in the world without a state. The national state of Kurdistan is split among Iraq, Syria, Iran and, of course, Turkey.

A history of the kurds an ethnic group without a state

Today’s 30 million Kurds constitute one of the world’s largest ethnic groups – without a country. 3. World War I’s victorious powers drew maps with no regard for ethnicities, religions, geography or logic. The Kurds (Kurdish: کورد, Kurd), also the Kurdish people (Kurdish: گەلی کورد, Gelê Kurd), are a Northwestern Iranic ethnic group in the Middle East.

They have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the South of Lake Van and Lake Urmia, a geographical area collectively referred to as Kurdistan. Today, Kurds are the largest ethnic group in the world without a state of their own.

They are unevenly distributed between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Armenia and Azerbaijan.

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If the Middle East map were to be redrawn to give the Kurds their own boundaries, Kurdistan would be as large as France, stretching over , square miles. Between 25 and 35 million Kurds inhabit a mountainous region straddling the borders of Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran and Armenia.

They make up the fourth-largest ethnic group in the Middle East, but. The area is often referred to as Kurdistan (home of the Kurds), but the Kurdish people do not have their own state. The drive for independent nationhood is a key part of Kurdish history and identity.

History of the Kurds - Wikipedia