See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract How does education affect racial attitudes? This study extends previous research by analyzing the effects of education on beliefs about racial stereotypes, discrimination, and affirmative action policies among Whites, Asians, Hispanics, and Blacks.
Education and Segregation Manuscript Word Count including tables, notes and references: Direct all correspondence to Michael O. Does more formal education also lead to behavior that heightens residential and school integration?
We argue that because education is a form of status, it does not increase the likelihood that Americans choose to live in integrated neighborhoods, or send their children to more integrated primary and secondary schools. Rather, identities formed through higher education lead to greater concern for status-enhancing strategies in residential and schooling decisions.
Both the structure of status hierarchies in the United States, in which race becomes a measure of school and neighborhood status, and the structure of educational institutions, which reinforces the view that status mobility results from differences in individual ability and effort, lead us to expect that education will be associated with greater segregation.
Using data from the National Household Education Survey, higher levels of education, net of other standard demographic variable and contextual effects, are associated with living in more segregated neighborhoods and sending children to more segregated schools.
Based on these findings, we offer an alternative interpretation of the positive relationship between education and liberal attitudes on racial issues. Educational Status and Black-White Segregation in Neighborhoods and Schools Deeply implicated in individual life chances, residential and school segregation by race have been the focus of researchers and policy makers, and core areas of conflict among Americans.
One finding has been replicated so often that it is nearly a truism: Highly educated whites are more open to housing integration, say that they are less likely to leave a neighborhood if the minority population increases, express less discomfort with minority neighbors, and are more likely to say they would consider buying a home in a mixed-race neighborhood e.
What is more, education appears to be the single strongest predictor of such support. Though there is debate about the precise causal link between education and attitudes, there seems little doubt that increased education among whites contributes positively to racial attitudes see Jackman and Schaeffer for exceptions.
We know that highly educated whites and blacks are about as segregated from each other as are less educated whites and blacks Frey et al. But we know little else beyond this limited finding. At least two questions need answers: Due to the importance of segregation for many individual and social outcomes, we must probe the mechanisms that affect the level of segregation to develop adequate public policy, especially public policy aimed at alleviating the structural effects of race.
And investigations of the relationship between segregation and education must go beyond the assumption that education, through more liberal racial attitudes, leads to less segregationist behavior.
This paper develops a theory of the relationship between education and segregation. We first argue that since education constitutes status in the U.
Not only does education have this direct relationship to segregation through the structure of status hierarchies, but also processes within educational institutions mediate the relationship between educational attainment and residential and schooling choices.
The second section of this paper argues that educational attainment reinforces beliefs and fosters social networks and identities that run counter to its positive effect on liberal racial attitudes. A theoretical focus on educational practices and outcomes that oppose or mitigate the liberalizing effect of education leads us to deduce hypotheses that predict, for whites, an education-segregation relationship opposite that of the education-racial attitudes relationship.
We conclude by showing how our theory and results provide a different interpretive frame for understanding the education-racial attitudes relationship. Educational credentials allow one to achieve, on average, occupations with promising career ladders and greater autonomy, and higher incomes.
But education is a key means to social mobility partly because it constitutes a status in and of itself Meyer One could argue that education is one of the most important forms of cultural capital Bourdieu,and a key means of building social capital, in the U.
Because education constitutes status, it seems likely that there is a direct connection between higher educational attainment and more segregated neighborhoods and schools. As we argue in this section, since educational status is strongly associated with neighborhood and school status, and neighborhood and school status is inversely related to percent black, those with greater educational status are more likely to choose more segregated neighborhoods and schools to maintain and enhance their overall status.
We expect that educational status is positively related to what Connelly Norms and expectations of higher educational status require a correspondingly high residential status.
Massey and Denton argue that within all racial groups, a key indicator of socioeconomic advancement and status, and a key way to ensure that those advancements are maintained, is to move into higher status neighborhoods. They find that "the effect of racial composition on neighborhood evaluation is more negative for the higher socioeconomic status respondents than for others.Teacher-created and classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress.
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Race, Ethnicity, and Education Policy. In: Oxford Handbook of Racial and Ethnic Politics in America. New York: Oxford University Press ; Richard Rothstein’s “Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap” is a must read for all educators working in our publicly funded schools.
|Automatic Bibliography Maker||Du Bois introduced the concept of a "psychological wage" for white laborers. This special status, he wrote, divided the labor movement by leading low-wage white workers to feel superior to low-wage black workers.|
|How Racially Diverse Schools and Classrooms Can Benefit All Students||Download While there are a handful of studies that challenge the link between school desegregation policy and positive academic outcomes, they represent only a small slice of the literature. Furthermore, these positive academic outcomes, particularly the closing of the achievement gap, make sense given that integrating schools leads to more equitable access to important resources such as structural facilities, highly qualified teachers, challenging courses, private and public funding, and social and cultural capital.|
In an analysis of Texas school districts, Harvard economist Ronald Ferguson found that teachers’ expertise—as measured by scores on a licensing examination, master’s degrees, and experienc—was the single most important determinant of student achievement, accounting for roughly 40 percent of the measured variance in students’ .
Race, Ethnicity & Education is an interdisciplinary journal which provides a focal point for international scholarship, research and debate. It publishes original and challenging research which explores the dynamics of race, racism and ethnicity in education policy, theory and practice.