Behavior[ edit ] Norms running counter to the behaviors of the overarching society or culture may be transmitted and maintained within small subgroups of society.
Even seasoned China hands, who likely understand the need to develop cross-cultural awareness and skills for doing business in China, find it difficult to determine how to develop those skills and which ones are the most essential. Understanding several key cultural concepts is useful in personal and business dealings.
First, having some basic knowledge of Chinese history and the political, economic, and social challenges that the country faces is helpful before entering China. Second, it is important to understand cultural differences—particularly verbal and nonverbal communication styles—because so much misunderstanding stems from misreading cues and gestures.
|Eternity, however, is not a concept much in vogue in a time when revolutionary changes are transforming almost every human society in the world. China appeared eternal to the French philosophes of the eighteenth century, many Sinologues of the nineteenth century, and some social scientists of the early twentieth century.|
|It is always interesting to study other cultures and it is extremely important to do just that if you are going to have interactions with them.|
|A norm is a guideline or an expectation for behavior.|
Third, face and guanxi are still vital concepts, but their importance varies slightly across generations. Finally, knowing the ins and outs of Chinese etiquette, from proper banquet behavior to gift-giving and business card exchange, can only help to enhance business relations and avoid embarrassing faux pas.
Face The Asian concept of face is similar to the Western concept of face, but it is far more important in most Asian countries. Face is associated with honor, dignity, and a deep sense of pride.
Causing someone to lose face, even if the offense was unintentional, could cause serious damage to a relationship. The collective nature of most Asian societies means that the loss of face affects not only the individual but also his or her family, village, or even country.
If one member of a group loses face, the whole group loses face. The notion of face is also present in national sporting events, where losing a game or event can be considered shameful.
Face is also manifest in the case of the Olympics, an event that involves national pride and holds face-gaining and face-losing potential for China. In addition, the concept of face is important in the business world. In China, where rank and hierarchy are more important than they are in most Western societies, sending someone of lower status to receive a high-ranking guest could cause the guest to lose face.
If the guest attends an event planned in his or her honor—and later reciprocates with a similarly impressive display—both sides can gain face, the host because he or she had the means to put on such an impressive event, and the guest because he or she warranted the event.
Guanxi Guanxi combines aspects of face, obligation, reciprocity, and hierarchy. Simply put, it is a network of relationships that carries a certain expectation of mutual benefit.
A guanxi network is made up of people one can count on and trust, who can pull strings and arrange for extra help. First and foremost, these people are family, then perhaps classmates or colleagues.
In granting a favor or help, there is the unspoken expectation of reciprocity, and the receiver is somewhat in debt until the favor is returned. Generation gap Guanxi and face are interconnected and are both critically important in understanding Chinese business practices, particularly with people over age A generational and geographical gap in the importance of these cultural concepts is emerging in China today, however.
Until economic reform and the shift toward the rule of law accelerated in the s, having and maintaining good guanxi was essential to getting anything done. People raised during the Cultural Revolution or before China opened in the late s were shaped by a system that relied on a robust network of relationships to get anything done.
From buying train tickets to transferring to a different work unit, guanxi was essential. In fact, it was often more important than having the necessary skills and training.
These young urbanites are more likely to put their own careers and nuclear families before their extended families or communities.
As a result of the one-child policy, most members of this generation are only children, raised without siblings but with incredible pressure to succeed and become rich. Many young urbanites in their twenties and thirties have been exposed to Western business practices by attending MBA programs or working in foreign companies.
Instead of obtaining their positions through a complex web of guanxi, they tend to rely on their own credentials, helped by professional headhunters. They tend to be more savvy and determined than their elders, more inclined to speak directly, and less likely to be concerned about losing or saving face.
For them, getting ahead and making money are often more important than group dynamics or worries about offending colleagues. Thus, though it is essential for foreign businesspeople to have a deep understanding of face, guanxi, and the more subtle aspects of Chinese culture when meeting with older Chinese colleagues, those concepts are slightly less important when interacting with younger urbanites.
The rising importance of sound business principles and credentials makes it easier to accomplish things without relying exclusively on guanxi connections in contemporary China.
Guanxi is certainly still relevant—it is a simple fact of life that having the right connections helps anywhere—but it is no longer the golden ticket to obtaining good jobs and accomplishing business objectives in China. Understanding prevailing practices China is a complex society with a long history that is relevant today.
It is also helpful to understand certain precepts in Chinese communication, etiquette, and cultural practices. Chinese are still extremely sensitive about these episodes, and it is easy for a foreigner to unwittingly cause offense.
The art of subtle communication Comprehending the differences between American and Chinese communication styles is crucial for business success.Chinese Society.
Traditional Chinese society. Transitional Chinese society.
Analyzing Cultural Changes Through Cultural Product Analysis Cultural product analysis is a research method that infers patterns of culture and participating psyches from products that constitute a cultural environment (e.g., books, architecture, TV pro-. Chinese Society. Traditional Chinese society. Transitional Chinese society. Contemporary Chinese society. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Hegel spoke of China as the country “des ewig wiederhehrenden Prinzips” meaning, in general, “eternal” grupobittia.comty, however, is not a concept much in vogue in a time when revolutionary changes are transforming almost every human society in the world. Sep 03, · Chinese are taught from primary school through graduate school about cultural differences between China and America: Chinese love their families, Chinese have honor, Chinese are modest, Chinese are caring, Chinese are generous, grupobittia.coms:
Contemporary Chinese society. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Hegel spoke of China as the country “des ewig wiederhehrenden Prinzips” meaning, in general, “eternal” grupobittia.comty, however, is not a concept much in vogue in a time when revolutionary changes are transforming almost every human society in the world.
Social norms, like many other social phenomena, are the unplanned, unexpected result of individuals' interactions. (Pagel ), whereas changes in social status, such as the passage from student to faculty, are an example of the second. a suboptimal outcome. Suppose, however, that society has develop a norm of cooperation; that is.
Changes in the economy lead to changes in the family. and Cohn. changes in religion lead to changes in government (politics) p. Mittal Publication New Delhi. The American Indian studies have tended to focus on the overwhelming effects that white American society has had on tribal groups.
There is a lot of literary delineation of the. Norms. Every society has expectations about how its members should and should not behave.
A norm is a guideline or an expectation for behavior. Each society makes up its own rules for behavior and decides when those rules have been violated and what to do about it. Socialization American Born Chinese Children under Chinese Culture According to the American Heritage Dictionary, socialization is “the process of learning interpersonal and interactional skills that are in conformity with the values of one's society” (American Heritage).
Analyzing Cultural Changes Through Cultural Product Analysis Cultural product analysis is a research method that infers patterns of culture and participating psyches from products that constitute a cultural environment (e.g., books, architecture, TV pro-.