Background[ edit ] The concept of compiling the world's knowledge in a single location dates back to the ancient Libraries of Alexandria and Pergamumbut the modern concept of a general-purpose, widely distributed, printed encyclopedia originated with Denis Diderot and the 18th-century French encyclopedists. This concept of a machine-assisted encyclopedia was further expanded in H. The development of the World Wide Web led to many attempts to develop internet encyclopedia projects. An early proposal for a web-based encyclopedia was Interpedia in by Rick Gates ;  this project died before generating any encyclopedic content.
Galileo viewed these moons as a smaller Copernican system within the Solar system and used them to support Heliocentrism. Galileo began his telescopic observations in the later part ofand by March was able to publish a small book, The Starry Messenger Sidereus Nunciusdescribing some of his discoveries: Other observations followed, including the phases of Venus and the existence of sunspots.
Galileo's contributions caused difficulties for theologians and natural philosophers of the time, as they contradicted scientific and philosophical ideas based on those of Aristotle and Ptolemy and closely associated with the Catholic Church.
In particular, Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus, which showed it to circle the sun, and the observation of moons orbiting Jupiter, contradicted the geocentric model of Ptolemywhich was backed and accepted by the Roman Catholic Church,   and supported the Copernican model advanced by Galileo.
InGalileo visited the Collegium Romanum in Rome, where the Jesuit astronomers by that time had repeated his observations.
Not all of Galileo's claims were completely accepted: Christopher Claviusthe most distinguished astronomer of his age, never was reconciled to the idea of mountains on the Moon, and outside the collegium many still disputed the reality of the observations.
In a letter to Kepler of August Galileo complained that some of the philosophers who opposed his discoveries had refused even to look through a telescope: What do you have to say about the principal philosophers of this academy who are filled with the stubbornness of an asp and do not want to look at either the planets, the moon or the telescope, even though I have freely and deliberately offered them the opportunity a thousand times?
Truly, just as the asp stops its ears, so do these philosophers shut their eyes to the light of truth. Geocentrists who did verify and accept Galileo's findings had an alternative to Ptolemy's model in an alternative geocentric or "geo-heliocentric" model proposed some decades earlier by Tycho Brahe — a model, in which, for example, Venus circled the sun.
Brahe argued that the distance to the stars in the Copernican system would have to be times greater than the distance from the sun to Saturn. Moreover, the only way the stars could be so distant and still appear the sizes they do in the sky would be if even average stars were gigantic — at least as big as the orbit of the earth, and of course vastly larger than the sun refer to article on Tychonic System.
Galileo became involved in a dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots with Christoph Scheinera Jesuit. This became a bitter lifelong feud.
Neither of them, however, was the first to recognise sunspots — the Chinese had already been familiar with them for centuries. The debate was unfriendly, and Galileo's blunt and sometimes sarcastic style, though not extraordinary in academic debates of the time, made him enemies.
During this controversy one of Galileo's friends, the painter Lodovico Cardi da Cigoliinformed him that a group of malicious opponents, which Cigoli subsequently referred to derisively as "the Pigeon league",  was plotting to cause him trouble over the motion of the earth, or anything else that would serve the purpose.
Nevertheless, three years later another priest, Tommaso Caccinidid in fact do precisely that, as described below. Bible argument Further information: Biblical inerrancy In the Catholic world prior to Galileo's conflict with the Church, the majority of educated people subscribed to the Aristotelian geocentric view that the earth was the center of the universe and that all heavenly bodies revolved around the earth,  though Copernican theories were used to reform the calendar in Heliocentrismthe theory that the earth was a planet, which along with all the others revolved around the sun, contradicted both geocentrism and the prevailing theological support of the theory.
One of the first suggestions of heresy that Galileo had to deal with came in from a professor of philosophy, poet and specialist in Greek literature, Cosimo Boscaglia.
Boscaglia had talked to Madame [Christina] for a while, and though he conceded all the things you have discovered in the sky, he said that the motion of the earth was incredible and could not be, particularly since Holy Scripture obviously was contrary to such motion.
The exchange having been reported to Galileo by Castelli, Galileo decided to write a letter to Castelli expounding his views on what he considered the most appropriate way of treating scriptural passages which made assertions about natural phenomena.
Preaching a sermon in Florence at the end ofhe denounced Galileo, his associates, and mathematicians in general a category that included astronomers.Today, a general overview of Canadian gun laws, so we Americans (and you folks across the ocean) can have a better idea of what the legal situation is in the Great White North.
Please recognize that this is a general overview only – we are not getting into the nitty gritty details, and this is not.
🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. Banning Books “It’s not just the books under fire now that worry me.
It is the books that will never be written, the books that will never be read. And all due to the fear of censorship. As always, young readers will be the real losers” (Blume ). Judy Blume can not explain the problem of book censorship any clearer.
Distilling the most radical accomplishments being made in labs around the world, including gene therapy, genetic engineering, life extension, brain-computer interfaces, and cloning, More Than Human offers an exciting tour of the impact biotechnology will have on our lives.
Many people think that book censorship, challenges and book banning are things that happened in the distant past. That is certainly not the case as you'll see from my latest Banned Books Report on book censorship.
You may also remember all of the controversy about the Harry Potter books in the early. The subject of censorship is a very controversial one, especially the banning of books. Many people believe they must protect themselves and others from the "evils" of many classic books and works of art because they can .