Premier Wen Jiabao announced the Rise of Central China Plan, a development strategy to coordinate regional growth in six central provinces, in To achieve the broad goals outlined in the plans, the PRC government has implemented strategic programs, developed industry-specific plans, created industry-specific catalogues of preferred technologies, and announced new incentives to attract investment to the central and western regions. Though both plans have limitations, they provide important guidance—and specific incentives—for foreign companies looking to expand in China and gain access to potential customers in untapped regions.
Received Aug 27; Accepted Feb 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background An ecological perspective was prominently present in the health promotion movement in the s, but this seems to have faded. The burden of disease the developing world is facing cannot be addressed solely by reductionist approaches.
Holistic approaches are called for that recognize the fundamentally interdependent nature of health and other societal, developmental, and ecosystem related factors in human communities. An ecosystem approach to human health ecohealth provides a good starting point to explore these interdependencies.
Discussion Development assistance is often based on the assumption that developed countries can serve as models for developing ones.
Japan has provided lavish assistance to Laos for example, much of it going to the development of transport networks.
However, there is little sign that there is an awareness of the potentially negative environmental and health impacts of this assistance. We argue that the health consequences of environmental degradation are not always understood, and that developing countries need to consider these issues.
The ecohealth approach is useful when exploring this issue. We highlight three implications of the ecohealth approach: However, because this approach may involve an unattainable goal, we suggest that health should be defined in the ecosystem context, and the goal should be to attain acceptable and sustainable levels of health through enabling people to realize decent livelihoods, and to pursue their life purpose; 2 The increasing interconnectedness of ecosystems in a globalizing world requires an ethical approach that considers human responsibility for the global biosphere.
Here, ecohealth could be a countervailing force to our excessive concentration on economy and technology; and 3 If ecohealth is to become a positive agent of change in the global health promotion movement, it will have to find a secure place in the educational curriculum. We highlight three implications of the ecohealth perspective.
Ecosystem approach, Ecohealth, Ecohealth education, Developing countries, Ecosystem degradation, Health consequences, Development and health, Laos, Japan Background Relevance of the ecological perspective on human health The health promotion movement, as reflected Development strategy for japan the Ottawa Charter of [ 1 ] squarely recognized the importance of ecosystems and sustainable resources for human health.
The Charter was important in encouraging a move toward a more holistic approach to health, applying whole systems thinking and emphasizing the integration of a commitment to health into the fabric of culture, social structures, processes and routine life in human communities. In practice, the healthy settings approach is mostly applied to organizational environments such as schools and workplaces, as convenient places for health interventions.
With roots in similar thinking, a city-based health promotion approach evolved in Western Europe, and was extended to North America and later to other regions of the world. It is, however, limited to urban settings, and in the developing world may be largely dependent on development assistance.
In this article, we are concerned with conceptualizing and understanding health in its wider environmental or ecosystem context, within a globalizing world. From this perspective it is disappointing that, initiatives such the health settings and healthy cities movements notwithstanding, the broad ecological perspective seems to have faded from the health promotion movement [ 4 ].
The recent Bangkok Charter of [ 5 ] and subsequent global health promotion conferences [ 67 ] appear to confirm this view. Thus, to address the complex health risks associated with globalization and global environmental change, we argue that the ecological framework for understanding human interaction with the world, including values, principles, and ethics, needs to be revived and renewed.
For a long time, developing countries have been struggling with communicable diseases such as malaria, diarrhea, and HIV. Today, these developing countries are faced with the double burden of these diseases, and an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer [ 8 ].
Traditionally, reductionist approaches were adopted to reduce the burden of disease [ 9 ]. Researchers would investigate the major risk factors associated with specific diseases, and devise plausible preventive measures corresponding to each of these where possible.
However, risk factors are mostly interdependent, and intertwined with our livelihoods and ecosystems.
Reductionist approaches tend to overlook these interdependencies and the trade-offs communities make between human health and their societal, cultural, and ecosystem environments, and it has been pointed out that the resulting solutions often turn out to be only a temporary relief, and can lead to new levels of problems [ 1011 ].
Thus, to address the double burden of disease developing countries are facing, a broad ecological perspective to health is called for. They are interdependent and function as dynamic units [ 12 ]. Jared Diamond [ 15 ] has recently argued that, historically, the survival or collapse of societies can be explained from the perspective of their interactions with the ecosystem.
In other words, the health of the ecosystem determines the survival of individuals as well as of groups, communities, and societies. In the 21st century, the globalization not only of economy and society, but also of environmental change, means that any degradation of ecosystems affects societies and human health globally.
Conversely, the ecosystem is affected by human livelihood requirements, behavior, and social development. One of the great development challenges for the 21st century is how human communities can avoid compromising human health while meeting growing demands on resources and ecosystem services and at the same time promote thriving, resilient communities and environmental sustainability [ 16 ].
Examples of successful research projects suggest that the ecohealth approach can contribute to new scientific knowledge and innovations, reinforce community empowerment and initiatives, and promote policy change [ 16 ].
What are ecohealth and successful ecohealth research? Contrary to traditional ecology, which highlighted the physical and biological features of environment, the ecological approach to health is more social-ecological in nature. It focuses more than before on the social, organizational, and cultural components of the environment; consistent with the Ottawa Charter of Health Promotion [ 1 ].
In other words, an ecohealth approach recognizes that human health and well-being are the result of a complex and dynamic set of interactions between people, social and economic conditions, culture, and the natural environment [ 4 ].Oct 28, · When it comes to leadership development, most companies aren't seeing the benefits of their efforts.
We asked four members of Forbes Councils to share their insights on what it takes to build the. The Basic Concept of the Growth Strategy .. 1 2. Roadmap to Growth .. 3 (1) Unleashing the power of the private sector to the fullest extent The Basic Concept of the Growth Strategy Japan’s economic stagnation of more than two decades has continued for far too the development of a stable macroeconomic environment, overcoming.
Definition of a Brand Strategy. A brand strategy is a formal plan used by a business to create a particular image of itself in the minds of current and potential customers. When a . Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
Derived from the Greek word strategos, the term strategy, when it appeared in use during the 18th century, was seen in its narrow sense as the "art of the general", or "'the art of arrangement" of troops. Military strategy deals with the .
The Economic Development of Japan The Path Traveled by Japan as a Developing Country Kenichi Ohno. Translated from Kenichi Ohno, Tojokoku Nippon no Ayumi: into the world has been totally discredited as a national economic strategy.
While the policies of . Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) is an integrated organization of science and technology in our country that establishes an infrastructure for the entire process from the creation of knowledge to the return to the society.