October 30, Introduction to Sociology Instructions: As always, draw specifically from the texts and use specific page numbers, in the form of a properly formatted citation, to refer to ideas in them. Those answers without proper citations from the required texts will receive no credit for that answer. Spelling, grammar, punctuation, usage, sentence structure and the like count.
Interactionist and Functionalist Views Jack Cunningham: BSc Hons Politics and Sociology The aim of the following essay is to analyse two opposing strands of sociological theory; those theories being Functionalism and Interactionism.
This essay shall outline features of social perceptions on deviance and will furthermore assess the strengths and weaknesses of both theories whilst applying the concept of deviance to the modern day. Usefulness of these theories in relation to the understanding of deviance will be taken with a balanced approach.
Functionalism is a theory of social observation that was first uncovered by social scientist Emile Durkheim that, as Durkheim claims, focuses on what binds society together and what intrinsically binds the individual to it, how society appears to be a separate entity and how a strong sense of morality is crucial to maintaining the traditional structures of social life Durkheim, Furthermore, many Functionalist theorists have made their views clear on the concept of deviance.
One such theorist is Emile Durkheim, as aforementioned. Durkheim believed that his findings on suicide and the causes of it were strongly linked to social structures.
Therefore, a lack of consensus, it was thought, accompanied with the decline of aspects such as religion, creating a lack of purpose and perceived individual inadequacy can contribute to higher suicide rates, which were higher in Northern, Protestant Europe as opposed to Southern, Catholic Europe where they were lower Durkheim, Merton spoke of a structural strain, whereby inadequate structures in society enabling someone to progress are inadequate, causing an individual to turn to deviancy.
Paradoxically, many would criticise Functionalist theory strenuously. Contrasting Functionalism with Interactionism, an evident divide becomes clear. Interactionist Erving Goffman places great emphasis on self-presentation, claiming that the individual performs as if they were an actor on a stage, and that competing agents will attempt to control and guide an impression of the individual onto others Goffman, Labelling theory is a prevalent idea within the Interactionist equilibrium and remains importantly used in the study of deviance.
Howard Becker observed this during his study of marijuana smokers, and found that individuals associated key characteristics with smokers and thus is deemed as a negative lifestyle choice. Notions of deviancy are therefore created through perceptions of behaviour Becker, Often labels cannot be shaken, a claim that is specifically true of individuals in asylums.
Asylums can be institutions of labelling, whether that be through the behaviour of inmates through hoarding behaviour, or through inmates accepting that label and thus identifying as deviant. Rebellion over this in an asylum can lead to both further judgement and prompt fears in those watching the individual.
Inmates classically items readily available in the outside world, another perceived deviant trait Goffman, Stigma is regularly associated with those residing in asylums or institutions. Indeed, a study conducted in Singapore found that among mental health patients seeking outpatient or affiliated care, Furthermore, a study of female physician-parents concluded that, amongst this group that remains prone to depression and mental health problems, many would not seek help due to the embarrassment this may cause.
Individuals that took part in the survey feared stigma caused by disclosing their mental health concern Gold et al, Deviancy remains common within society, as vehicular violations are often ignored, although it is nonetheless present.
Proactively labelling has often been linked to the social class structure. Chambliss observed that both groups progressed into lifestyles correlating to their labels Chambliss, Additionally, discrimination can occur on a micro social level, primarily within minority communities.
Attitudes towards the concept of deviance in Britain promote much division within British society, not least on the issue of immigration and refugees. Recently the media in Britain have sought to represent such groups as being deviant towards British culture and society, a possible threat to the British way of living.
This has been represented in many ways, notably through an image in the Daily Mail newspaper depicting armed terrorists crossing the border into Europe, surrounded by rats, depicting refugees to be both violently deviant and culturally below British standards The Daily Mail, Functionalist thoughts surrounding this subject could claim that such migrants wish to cause discontent within society.
Arguments surrounding this would claim that excessive acceptance towards the Muslim community across European societies has stemmed assimilation into society and resulted in anomie The New York Times, Indeed, migration into the United Kingdom is consistently represented as negative.Other scholars are of the view that crime and deviance emanate from social reaction, strain caused by the society, social transformation and interaction just to mention a few.
Conversely some scholars avow that it is rather biological and psychological factors. Therefore this essay . Deviance and Social Stigma Essay Words | 4 Pages. Deviance and Social Stigma Crime is a creation of the law. When one becomes a deviant he or she has gone against law statute and therefore it becomes a crime.
Apr 11, · Do the concepts of 'the self fulfilling prophecy' and 'stigma' affect this form of deviance ie is belong to a certain social group or coming from a specific suburb likely to affect the way some groups of people are being policed for this form of deviance?Status: Resolved.
He describes deviance in relation to the labeling theory as that: “ social groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction creates deviance, and by applying those roles to particular people and labeling them as outsiders.
2. Williams maintains that social inequality is visible even in seemingly insignificant interactions in a toy store. Using specific examples from the text, outline her position and provide a critique of it. 3. 4. 5.
Describe the labeling theory of deviance. What basic insight about deviance is offered by this approach? Free Essay: Deviance and Social Stigma Crime is a creation of the law.
When one becomes a deviant he or she has gone against law statute and therefore it.