Visual Design 5 Summary: You-are-here navigation consists of signs that help orient website visitors as they explore the site. Many websites need stronger location indicators.
N-Grams and Markov chains. N-Grams and Markov chains Rationale Last week we developed code to help us answer the following question: How often does a particular unit character, word occur in a text?
This week, we attempt to answer a slightly more sophisticated question: Which units co-occur in a text, and in which order? This is our first foray into a syntactic analysis of text. Our eventual goal is to be able to use this syntactic model to generate a text that shares statistical properties with a given source text—not just in the distribution of units, but in the sequence of those units.
An n-gram is simply a sequence of units drawn from a longer sequence; in the case of text, the unit in question is usually a character or a word. The unit of the n-gram is called its level; the length of the n-gram is called its order.
For example, the following is a list of all unique character-level order-2 n-grams in the word condescendences: N-grams are used frequently in natural language processing and are a basic tool text analysis. Their applications range from programs that correct spelling to creative visualizations to compression algorithms to generative text.
Each line of the input is broken up into its component words; the list of these words is then iterated over by numerical index. The slice of the word list comprising the current index plus the next index is added to the pairs list; by the end of the outer for loop, pairs will be a list of word pairs, the pairs themselves represented as lists.
Finally, we loop over pairs, joining together each entry and then printing them out. In the the beginning beginning God God created created the the heaven heaven and and the the earth. And the the earth earth was What UNIX utility could you use to take the output of this program and produce a list of unique word pairs?
With this program, we can begin to see which word pairs are the most common in a given source text. Note the use of tuple here. In order to get around this limitation, we convert each word pair slice to a tuple, which acts like a list in most ways and can additionally be used as a dictionary key.
See the discussion of tuples from session 06 for more information. The output of this program specifically excludes any word pair that occurs only once. The output, using genesis. From word pairs to arbitrary n-grams: NGramCounter builds a dictionary relating ngrams as tuples to the number of times that ngram occurs in a text as integers class NGramCounter object: Take special note of the tokenize function, which is called by feed to break the input into a list of units.
Modify the NGramCounter class to use characters as units instead of words.Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.
Feb 08, · For my class we have to write an essay, and one of the portions of the assignment is to read an essay, and contextualize the authors writing.
She doesn't want us to write about the author, or write what the author wrote, but to write an essay that contextualizes the authors grupobittia.com: Resolved. Enjoy the best Winston Churchill Quotes at BrainyQuote. Quotations by Winston Churchill, British Statesman, Born November 30, Share with your friends.
How to Write a Thesis. A thesis should take a stand while answering the question. You should check out a sample dbq essay to get an idea of how a thesis looks like.
It's basically a preview of the argument that you will put forward in your essay. Write a thesis statement that will point to the direction that your essay will take. Contextualization is most often discussed in terms of missionary work. Some very early missionaries made no attempt to contextualize, but rather required their converts to become “Westernized,” or at least required a drastic break from their native culture.
This tended to build walls rather than build relationships. This definitive reader brings together seminal articles on development in Latin America.
Tracing the concepts and major debates surrounding the issue, the text focuses on development theory through three contrasting historical perspectives: imperialism, underdevelopment and dependency, and globalization.