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Using digital video technology, video ethnographies were produced to illustrate salient qualities of classroom culture including routines of action, shared beliefs and values, and patterns of interaction and engagement.
Through stimulated recall sessions with the researchers, preservice teachers describe learning a great deal about research methods, classroom culture, and how to more effectively participate in these cultures to facilitate student learning.
Vignettes and classroom anecdotes illustrate research results. Much learning takes place without teaching, and indeed much teaching takes place without learning. Much recent attention has been on this issue in the United States given the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and what has become known as the No Child Left Behind legislation that became law in early In this climate, educators and policy-makers continue to search for ways to connect teaching and student learning Millman, As the Wenger quote recognizes, teaching does not necessarily ensure learning, so we must be systematic in our efforts to assure teacher effectiveness.
The teacher as researcher movement has given serious attention to this issue for a number of years calling for teachers to become more systematic and methodological in investigating the effects of classroom instruction on student learning, among other things.
One of the central elements of teacher work sample methodology is examination of classroom context for the purpose of identifying how to teach most effectively within it. Similarly, Bogdan and Biklen tell us that learning to interact within a particular culture is one goal of ethnography, and so, given this, our research explores the role that ethnographic analysis might have on student learning.
Occasionally referred to as a demonstration exercise, several statewide teacher licensing commissions have begun to require completion of teacher work samples prior to teacher licensure Girod, Typically, a work sample has the following components: Each section is developed and executed in the context of a field experience placement with real students and contextual demands.
A teacher work sample is a vehicle to help teacher candidates articulate, document, investigate, and reflect on their teacher actions and their impact on student learning.
Because a teacher work sample is such a major project and, in several states, has consequences for licensure, helping teacher candidates master the components is challenging and critical.
Several practice activities have been designed to assist in this effort, of which, ours, the classroom ethnography project, is one. Instructional setting Our agenda as teacher educators is three-fold. First, our goal is to assist preservice teachers in learning the skills, knowledge, and dispositions necessary to complete a high quality teacher work sample.
Second, because our students are enrolled in our classes on action research methods, our goal is to teach the skills, knowledge and dispositions of structured inquiry. Third, in an effort to model action research and illustrate attempts to connect our teaching with student learning, we are studying our own effectiveness to meet the first two goals.
The Classroom Ethnography Project Prior to employing the Classroom Ethnography Project, our students tended to write either vague descriptions of the classroom context using phrases like "a fun place to learn" and "mostly middle class students.
What was almost always lacking from these earlier setting descriptions was a meaningful understanding of the inner workings of the classroom and how these affected learning. We hoped our students would understand the routines of action, shared values and beliefs, and the roles of the various classroom stakeholders so as to more effectively foster student learning.
We believed examination of classrooms and instructional contexts through the lens of culture, and ethnographic analysis, would be more appropriate.
Culture in terms of routines, shared values, and methods of interaction is, afterall, a central element of all classrooms Hammersley, that most teachers work hard to build. Yet, prior to employing our classroom ethnography project, teacher candidates were attempting to teach and manage in an environment in which they were not aware of the implicit rules or structures governing actions.
To begin, students were asked to spend several weeks observing, taking fieldnotes, and talking to both students and teachers, about the tacit rules or structures in the placement class.
We offered several guiding questions such as "from where do conflicts arise in this culture? As it is, these dispositions serve as lenses or filters through which our student-ethnographers would be viewing and interpreting classroom practices. We assisted students in this regard by asking for autobiographical analysis of their own school experiences, a great deal of story sharing, and reflective writing designed to reveal these predispositions.
These predispositions often served as initial analytic frameworks used in analysis of ethnographic data. After field placement class routines became more transparent to our teacher candidates, and appropriate analytic frameworks had been identified, students spent several days capturing digital video footage in an effort to further explore, systematize, and critique these salient cultural elements.
We chose digital video as our central media as it afforded easy manipulation, analysis, and editing. Through prior experience, we discovered analysis became more rich and nuanced if we used digital video as it allowed us to view class data with or without sound, assisted in viewing and re-viewing, and, most importantly, allowed for easy annotated analysis and clip organization.
As products, students were asked to create digital video ethnographies that illustrated central elements of their field placement classroom culture through the lenses of their personal analytic frameworks. In the end, typical video ethnographies ran between six and 10 minutes in length, incorporated a mix of classroom footage, text, and narration to illustrate themes and new understandings of the classroom setting.
All ethnographies ended with very clear action statements about how to interact effectively in this classroom culture for the goal of student learning.
Method and data The following sections draw data from 43 students at the conclusion of their classroom ethnography projects. Data comes from end-of-experience interviews and stimulated recall sessions in which the teacher candidates and the researchers watched the ethnographies together and discussed their content.
A semi-structured interview protocol was also used asking participants questions regarding: Interview and recall sessions lasted 45 to 90 minutes in length. Sessions were recorded and transcribed for analysis.
Emergent themes were shared with participants, and, again themes were adjusted to better match the thoughts, opinions, and experiences of the participants.Lesson plans, unit plans, and classroom resources for your teaching needs.
Browse or search thousands of free teacher resources for all grade levels and subjects. politeness strategies most commonly used and how these strategies are employed in the discussion parts of Thai student research papers. This can provide insightful information for teaching EFL/ESL academic writing.
Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Faculty Primer contextualized teaching and learning (CTL) as a promising set of strategies and practices that can be expanded through the state’s Basic Skills Initiative.
including academic and career and technical education (CTE), Mathematics, English and English as a Second Language (ESL.
Teaching Strategies and Techniques: Philippine Experience Evelina A. Pangalangan College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines Correspondence [email protected] As mentioned above, translation was the basis of language teaching for a very long time, and then rejected as new methodologies started to appear.
It was a key element of the Grammar Translation Method, which was derived from the classical method of teaching Greek and Latin.
Strategic teaching and strategic learning in first grade classrooms Kathryn Kinnucan-Welsch University of Dayton grade language arts program that was designed to extend the benefit of cues and strategies as part of the reading process (Schwartz, ).