Finding and Accessing University Technology There are several approaches for identifying appropriate university technology. Thus, establishing contacts in universities either with inventors themselves or through alumni who may now be working in industry represents a significant starting point for successful technology transfer.
Background[ edit ] Under the international Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works ofthe signatory countries are required to provide copyright protection for a minimum term of the life of the author plus fifty years.
Additionally, they are permitted to provide for a longer term of protection. After the United States' accession to the Berne convention, a number of copyright owners successfully lobbied the U.
Congress for another extension of the term of copyright, to provide for the same term of protection that exists in Europe. Since the Directive on harmonising the term of copyright protectionmember states of the European Union implemented protection for a term of the author's life plus seventy years.
The act was named in memory of the late Congressman Sonny Bonowho died nine months before the act became law: As a result, the bill was amended to include the Fairness in Music Licensing Actwhich exempted smaller establishments from needing a public performance license to play music.
The bill accomplishes these goals by extending the current U. Such an extension will provide significant trade benefits by substantially harmonizing U. Moreover, by stimulating the creation of new works and providing enhanced economic incentives to preserve existing works, such an extension will enhance the long-term volume, vitality and accessibility of the public domain.
The authors of the report believed that extending copyright protection would help the United States by providing more protection for their works in foreign countries and by giving more incentive to digitize and preserve works since there was an exclusive right in them.
The report also included minority opinions by Herb Kohl and Hank Brownwho believed that the term extensions were a financial windfall to current owners of copyrighted material at the expense of the public's use of the material. Actually, Sonny wanted the term of copyright protection to last forever.
I am informed by staff that such a change would violate the Constitution. Perhaps the Committee may look at that next Congress. They also claim that copyrighted works are an important source of income to the US   and that media such as VHSDVDCable and Satellite have increased the value and commercial life of movies and television series.
This was one of the arguments that prevailed in the Eldred v. It is also pointed out by proponents that the extension did not prevent all works from going in the public domain. They note that the Copyright Act established that unpublished works created before would still begin entering the public domain January 1, Known author: With an extension of copyright, future artists have to create something original, rather than reuse old work, however, had the act been in place in the s, it is unlikely that Andy Warhol would have been able to sell or even exhibit any of his work, since it all incorporated previously copyrighted material.
Proponents contend that it is more important to encourage all creators to make new works instead of just copyright holders. In addition, proponents note that once a work falls into the public domain there is no guarantee that the work will be more widely available or cheaper.
Suggesting that quality copies of public domain works are not widely available, they argue that one reason for a lack of availability may be due to publishers' reluctance to publish a work that is in the public domain for fear that they will not be able to recoup their investment or earn enough profit.
They note that opponents fail to take into account that copyright applies only to expressions of ideas and not the ideas themselves.
Works such as parody benefit from fair use. Proponents also question the idea that extended copyright is "corporate welfare. Nation Enterpriseshowever, the court explained how a copyright "respects and adequately safeguards the freedom of speech protected by the First Amendment.
Dixon mentions that "the United States has always viewed copyright primarily as a vehicle for achieving social benefit based on the belief that encouragement of individual effort by personal gain is the best way to advance the public welfare;"  however, "the U.
Karjalaa law professor, led an effort to try to prevent the CTEA from being passed. He testified before the Committees on the Judiciary arguing "that extending the term of copyright protection would impose substantial costs on the United States general public without supplying any public benefit.
The extension bills represent a fundamental departure from the United States philosophy that intellectual property legislation serve a public purpose. The article stated "When Senator Hatch laments that George Gershwin 's Rhapsody in Blue will soon 'fall into the public domain,' he makes the public domain sound like a dark abyss where songs go, never to be heard again.
In fact, when a work enters the public domain it means the public can afford to use it freely, to give it new currency. Thus there is little economic incentive in extending the terms of copyrights except for the few owners of franchises that are wildly successful, such as Disney.
They also point out that the Tenth Amendment can be construed as placing limits on the powers that Congress can gain from a treaty. More directly, they see two successive terms of approximately 20 years each the Copyright Act of and the Bono Act as the beginning of a "slippery slope" toward a perpetual copyright term that nullifies the intended effect and violates the spirit of the "for limited times" language of the United States Constitution, Article Isection 8, clause 8.
Life expectancies have risen from about 35 years in  to Moreover, life expectancy statistics are skewed due to historically high infant mortality rates. Correcting for infant mortality, life expectancy has only increased by fifteen years between and Reno believed that "the CTEA failed to sustain the intermediate level of scrutiny test afforded by the First Amendment because the government did not have an 'important' interest to justify withholding speech.
For example, a movie of Mickey Mouse playing with a computer could be legally created in Russia, but the movie would be refused admission for importation by US Customs because of copyright, resulting in a deprivation to American children.
Similarly, the first Winnie-the-Pooh book was published in and would have been public domain in A person who collected copyrighted works that would soon "go out of copyright," intending to re-release them on copyright expiration, lost the use of his capital expenditures for an additional 20 years when the Bono Act passed.
This is part of the underlying argument in Eldred v.1 The opinions and views expressed in this article are solely those of the author and should not be attributed to WIPO. Any comments or suggestions pertaining to this article may be sent to [email protected] thanks to Guriqbal Singh Jaiya for .
James Boyle The Public Domain Enclosing the Commons of the Mind. Copyright © by James Boyle. The author has made this online version available under a Creative. Intellectual property protection does more to inhibit creativity than to promote it.
We reward people to stop other people from making use of ideas that are really attributable to all of society.
About Brown & Michaels, PC. BROWN & MICHAELS' office is located in Ithaca in the Finger Lakes region of central New York State. Since , we have represented individual inventors, research institutions, high tech start-ups and established companies, both locally and world-wide.
Mar 24, · close to eight thousand people die of AIDS in the developing world .
- Restrictions to Protect Intellectual Property Most people have heard the term,” Intellectual Property”, which means the creations of the mind, such as inventions, trademarks, or designs. In the contemporary era, people have many arguments about their lives and environment. Mar 24, · close to eight thousand people die of AIDS in the developing world . The reasons for the lack of access to essential medicines are manifold, but in many. Intellectual property protection does more to inhibit creativity than to promote it. We reward people to stop other people from making use of ideas that are really attributable to all of society.
The reasons for the lack of access to essential medicines are manifold, but in many. Offence Section Sentence Indictment (1) A person commits an offence who with a view to gain for himself or another, or with intent to cause loss to another, and without the consent of the proprietor -.