This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience. Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. March This section needs attention from an expert in Law. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the section.
Share via Email Decide for yourself whether to believe this, but according to a new report there were only 16 cases of international terrorism in the Middle East last year.
That is the lowest number for any region in the world apart from North America where there were none at all.
Europe had 30 cases - almost twice as many as the Middle East - and Latin America came top with The figures come from the US state department's annual review of global terrorism, which has just been published on the internet.
No doubt a lot of painstaking effort went into counting them, but the statistics are fundamentally meaningless because, as the report points out, "no one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance".
That is an understatement. While most people agree that terrorism exists, few can agree on what it is. A recent book discussing attempts by the UN and other international bodies to define terrorism runs to three volumes and 1, pages without reaching any firm conclusion.
Using the definition preferred by the state department, terrorism is: The key point about terrorism, on which almost everyone agrees, is that it's politically motivated. This is what distinguishes it from, say, murder or football hooliganism. But this also causes a problem for those who compile statistics because the motive is not always clear - especially if no one has claimed responsibility.
So the American report states - correctly - that there were no confirmed terrorist incidents in Saudi Arabia last year. There were, nevertheless, three unexplained bombings and one shooting incident, all directed against foreigners.
Another essential ingredient you might think is that terrorism is calculated to terrorise the public or a particular section of it. The American definition does not mention spreading terror at all, because that would exclude attacks against property.
It is, after all, impossible to frighten an inanimate object. Among last year's attacks, were directed against a pipeline in Colombia which is owned by multinational oil companies. Such attacks are of concern to the United States and so a definition is required which allows them to be counted.
For those who accept that terrorism is about terrorising people, other questions arise. Does it include threats, as well as actual violence?
A few years ago, for example, the Islamic Army in Yemen warned foreigners to leave the country if they valued their lives but did not actually carry out its threat.
More recently, a group of Israeli peace activists were arrested for driving around in a loudspeaker van, announcing a curfew of the kind that is imposed on Palestinians. Terrifying for any Israelis who believed it, but was it terrorism?
Another characteristic of terrorism, according to some people, is that targets must be random - the intention being to make everyone fear they might be the next victim. Some of the Hamas suicide bombings appear to follow this principle but when attacks are aimed at predictable targets such as the military they are less likely to terrorise the public at large.
Definitions usually try to distinguish between terrorism and warfare.
In general this means that attacks on soldiers are warfare and those against civilians are terrorism, but the dividing lines quickly become blurred. But follow the asterisk to the small print and you find that "noncombatants" includes both civilians and military personnel who are unarmed or off duty at the time.
Several examples are given, such as the disco bombing in Berlin, which killed two servicemen. The most lethal bombing in the Middle East last year was the suicide attack on USS Cole in Aden harbour which killed 17 American sailors and injured 39 more.In his article “Terrorism,” Michael Walzer describes terrorism as the indiscriminate murder of innocent people - Terrorism: Meaning of Life and Oxford University Press introduction.
He goes on to explain that terrorists have the objective of destroying the morale of a nation and instilling fear within a society by not targeting a specific group of. Abstract. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy to the 21st century, especially to positive psychologists interested in meaning .
Definition of terrorism - the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims.
Whether called mass incarceration, mass imprisonment, the prison boom, the carceral state, or hyperincarceration, this phenomenon refers to the current American experiment in incarceration, which is defined by comparatively and historically extreme rates of imprisonment and by the concentration of.
There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism. Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions.
Moreover, governments have been reluctant to formulate an agreed upon and legally binding definition. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.
Whether called mass incarceration, mass imprisonment, the prison boom, the carceral state, or hyperincarceration, this phenomenon refers to the current American experiment in incarceration, which is defined by comparatively and historically extreme rates of imprisonment and by the concentration of. Definition of terrorism - the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims. Definition of terrorism - the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims The Oxford Word of the Year is. R v Andrew Littlefair. The day after the terrorist attacks at London Bridge and Borough Market on 3 June , Mr Littlefair posted messages on his Facebook page over a five hour period threatening serious violence to all Muslims, urging people to ‘fight back’, to burn mosques and to burn the Qur’an.
Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for .