Although much of the research on attachment has focused on infants and children, attachment theory is also applicable to adults in a psychodynamic framework, as attachment patterns tend to remain stable through to adulthood Hesse ; Fonagy, Domains of Attachment Theory and Therapy Attachment theory was initiated by the work of Bowlbywho, inspired by ethological research on imprinting behaviour Lorenz, and critical periods Katz,argued that attachment to a primary caregiver is a biological need essential for the survival of the species by ensuring safety and developmental maturation.
Bookmark Three of the main forms of counselling can sometimes be confusing. In this article I hope to unravel and clarify some of the mystery surrounding these three types of counselling approaches by means of comparing and contrasting with reference to their differing theoretical rationale, therapeutic interventions and processes of change.
The Person-Centred Approach Originator: Carl Rogers — focuses on the belief that we are all born with an innate ability for psychological growth if external circumstances allow us to do so.
Clients become out of touch with this self-actualising tendency by means of introjecting the evaluations of others and thereby treating them as if they were their own. As well as being non-directive the counselling relationship is based on the core conditions of empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard.
By clients being prized and valued, they can learn to accept who they are and reconnect with their true selves. The Psychodynamic Approach Originator: The urges that drive us emanate from our unconscious and we are driven by them to repeat patterns of behaviour.
Therapy includes free association, the analysis of resistance and transference, dream analysis and interpretation and is usually long term.
The aim is to make the unconscious conscious in order for the client to gain insight. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Contributors: We are reactive beings who respond to a variety of external stimuli and our behaviour is a result of learning and conditioning.
Because our behaviour is viewed as having being learned, it can, therefore, be unlearned. By helping clients to recognise negative thought patterns they can learn new positive ways of thinking which ultimately will affect their feelings and their behaviour.
When comparing and contrasting these three major approaches in relation to their differing theoretical rationale, I found the following similarities between the Person-Centred Approach and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
Both deal with the conscious mind, the here and now and focus on current problems and issues the client may have. They both have a positive view of human nature and view the individual as not necessarily being a product of their past experiences, but acknowledge that they are able to determine their own futures.
They both attempt to improve well-being by means of a collaborative therapeutic relationship that enables and facilitates healthy coping mechanisms in clients who are experiencing psychological pain and disharmony in their lives.
The id and the organismic self are both representative of that part of the psyche that is often ignored or repressed. The super-ego and the self-concept, both describe internalised rules and moral values which have been imposed upon us by significant others. The ego is similar to the actualising tendency in that it is concerned with mediating between the id and the super-ego and the actualising tendency seems to echo this.
In contrasting the Person-Centred Approach with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in relation to their differing theoretical rationale Cognitive Behavioural Therapy sees behaviour as being a learned response whereas the Person Centred view is that clients have not been able to have previously self-actualised.
From a Cognitive Behavioural perspective, human experience is viewed as a product of the interacting elements of physiology, cognition, behaviour and emotion.
The Cognitive Behavioural Approach is based upon the theoretical rationale that the way in which we feel and behave is determined by how we perceive and structure our experience.
In the Person-Centred Approach, a person is viewed as having had various experiences and developing a personality as a result of these subjective experiences.
In contrast to the Psychodynamic Approach, the Person-Centred Approach focuses on the conscious mind and what is going on in the here-and-now whereas the Psychodynamic Approach focuses on the subconscious and looks to early childhood to examine unresolved conflicts.
The Person-Centred Approach focuses on the positive belief in the human ability to self-actualise whereas the Psychodynamic Approach focuses largely on the negative aspects. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, however, focuses on the here and now and is goal orientated.
The Psychodynamic Approach sees us as being driven by unconscious urges whereas Cognitive Behavioural Approach sees our behaviour as being a learned response.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy sees functioning or dysfunctioning as being a learned response to external stimuli. In both these approaches, the client is prepared for the eventual ending a few sessions before the actual end of therapy. Both would use awareness techniques.
The therapeutic intervention of immediacy used in the Person Centred Approach could be compared to the technique of transference used in the Psychodynamic Approach however; in the Person-Centred Approach, the emphasis on the present replaces the investigative perspective of the Psychodynamic Approach.
In Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, clients are taught skills which are needed and necessary for them to change which would, in turn, reduce their emotional angst and change their behaviour.
In the Person-Centred Approach growth is self-directed. The Person-Centred Approach pays no attention to the issue of transference.
The relationship between the client and the counsellor is also different in that in the Person Centred Approach the core conditions are a vital tool whereas in the Psychodynamic Approach the counsellor is a blank slate onto which the client can project. Many of our schemas were put in place when we were very young and stem from childhood, this learned response and behaviour could be linked to the Psychodynamic intervention of linking childhood events and associated feelings to current problems.
In Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, the techniques used could be systematic desensitisation, reinforcement techniques, forceful disputing, reality testing and the identifying of automatic thoughts.More than 4, ebooks and many book collections, including archive collections of critical historical material, as well as publisher and topical collections.
The Difference between Person Centred and Psychodynamic therapy ‘Person-centred and psychodynamic counsellors have a lot to offer each others.. however when the differences between the approaches are examined there are significant areas of contradiction and incompatibility’ Wheeler and McLeod () briefly compare the key .
The similarities and differences between client-centered and psychodynamic therapies are: Client-centered therapy: An approach to counseling where the client determines the general direction of therapy, while the therapist seeks to increase the client's insightful self .
Freud and Psychodynamic Theory - Freud and Psychodynamic Theory Freud was born on May 6, , in the Moravian town of Freiberg, then a part of the . The decision to seek support is an individual one that can come about for various reasons and at different stages of life.
Some people seek psychotherapy to cope with difficult feelings, thoughts and behaviours, to help transition to new life experiences, or to adjust to changes that can come after illness, injury or traumatic events. ‘Person-centred and psychodynamic counsellors have a lot to offer each others..
however when the differences between the approaches are examined there are significant areas of contradiction and incompatibility’ Wheeler and McLeod () briefly compare the key principles of Person Centred and Psychodynamic approach and critically.