More What is diazepam? Diazepam is a benzodiazepine ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens.
Chloride channel opening results in membrane hyperpolarization, which inhibits cellular excitation. Enhanced GABA neurotransmission results in sedation, striated muscle relaxation, anxiolysis, and anticonvulsant effects. These changes could have the potential to alter tissue perfusion. The rate of BZD onset of action is determined by its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.
The relatively lipophilic BZDs eg, diazepam usually have a faster onset of effect than the relatively water-soluble BZDs eg, lorazepam.
BZD effects can be potentiated when ethanol is present as a coingestant. Peak blood concentrations of most agents occur within hours. After a single dose, the lipophilic agents can have a shorter duration of action shorter CNS effect than water-soluble agents because rapid redistribution from the CNS to peripheral sites eg, adipose tissue ; thus, lorazepam has a longer CNS duration of action than diazepam.
However, diazepam metabolizes to active intermediates with prolonged half-lives, which extend its therapeutic effects. Most BZDs are broken down into pharmacologically active metabolites, which may have longer half-lives than the parent compounds.
However, no short-term increases were noted between and The overdose death rate increased from 0. Of these, 1.
In particular, the combination of alprazolam with opioids may be fatal. During todeath rates from alprazolam increased The increase was driven mostly by accidental toxicity in people with known drug and alcohol problems. Drugs other than alprazolam and its metabolites were present in The most commonly detected drugs, in order of decreasing frequency, were opioids, other BZDs, and alcohol.
Elderly individuals and very young persons are more susceptible to the CNS depressant effects of BZDs than people in other age groups.
Prognosis Oral benzodiazepine BZD overdoses, without co-ingestions, rarely result in significant morbidity eg, aspiration pneumonia, rhabdomyolysis or mortality, although in mixed overdoses they can potentiate the effect of alcohol or other sedative-hypnotics.
Overdose of ultrashort-acting BZDs eg, triazolam [Halcion] is also more likely to result in apnea and death than overdose with longer-acting BZDs.
Of individual BZDs, alprazolam is relatively more toxic than others in overdose.Just because a doctor prescribes a pill doesn’t mean that it’s safe for everyone. As the number of issued prescriptions rises, so do the rates .
The majority of long-term BZD users who are 65 years of age and older report not being concerned about BZD side effects. This is mainly because they have never been alerted to the risks In the EMPOWER trial, when provided with evidence-based information about harm in the form of a mailed educational brochure, 27% of chronic BZD users discontinued their use within six months Introduction.
Misuse of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs is second only to marijuana as the nation's most prevalent illicit drug use issue. 1 Highlighting this critical issue with the most current and accurate information on the nature and extent of prescription drug misuse will help policymakers understand and refine substance use prevention and treatment strategies.
The drug alprazolam is often called Xanax, after one of the most common brand names. We know that using alprazolam has caused some young people to end up in hospital, particularly when they have mixed it with alcohol. Ethical and Legal Dimensions of Benzodiazepine Prescription.
by Harold J. Bursztajn, M.D. and Archie Brodsky, B.A. From the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical. Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in , and made available in by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since , has also marketed the benzodiazepine .