Abstract Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control.
Abstract At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory.
Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation.
Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts.
For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions.
We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task.
When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced.
In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used.
These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays.
This is referred to as Prospective Memory PM. Individuals are often engaged in other activities during the interval between planning and performing intentions.
Furthermore in order to execute intended actions, individuals must often interrupt other ongoing activity. In most cases, there are no external agents directing individuals to engage in a memory search at the point that the PM task should be performed and individuals need to self-initiate the retrieval of the intentions.
In aviation, incident analyses and interview data indicate that pilots and air traffic controllers sometimes fail to complete intentions Dismukes, ; Shorrock, One way to minimize human error is to provide operators with automated support tools.
In the current article, we develop and test the effectiveness of external aids for reducing PM error and interference to ongoing tasks in an Air Traffic Control ATC simulation. The ATC task we employ simulates work domains where individuals continuously monitor multi-item dynamic displays, such as ATC, naval radar tracking, and air battle management.
The ATC task involves various ongoing activities including detecting conflicts, and accepting and handing off aircraft. A PM task of remembering to deviate from a routine acceptance procedure when a target aircraft is encountered is embedded within these ongoing tasks.
This cost indicates that attention was allocated to the PM task at the expense of ongoing tasks. Loft and Remington also found that, despite costs to ongoing tasks, participants often did not remember to perform intentions, and concluded that individuals had difficulty maintaining their intent to monitor the task environment in order to determine when deviation from routine was required Norman, ; Reason, With this in mind, our goal was to develop external aids that would allow individuals to allocate attention to PM tasks more precisely, thereby decreasing PM error and costs to ongoing tasks.
In developing our aids, we consulted theories in the basic experimental literature that describe how individuals maintain and retrieve intentions Einstein et al. Air traffic controllers perform sets of routine activities to expedite and preserve orderly traffic flows and maintain aircraft separation.
The radar screen displays a sector consisting of sector boundaries and flight paths.The CIA Disclosure is finally available in Genesis for the Space Race available on Amazon and at grupobittia.com If you want to know who John B.
Leith . in the future, referred to as prospective memory (PM). Air traf c controllers sometimes forget to perform deferred tasks, which has contributed to serious operational. Participants assumed the role of air traffic controllers. thus, the vigilance tasks may encourage more extensive monitoring.
As a result, PM tasks may produce a reduced cost to the Smith, R.
E., & Bhaskara, A. (). Designing external aids to facilitate prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation. Proceedings of the. gramming specific scenarios in which the controllers would control air traffic; and 2) developing measure-ment tools for evaluating controller performance.
Method Scenario Development tant tasks from the task-based job analysis (see Nichels, Bobko, Blair, Sands, & Tartak, ). Smokers have shorter useful consciousness time—an altitude of ’ the symptoms and effects for a smoker are equivalent to those experience by a non-smoker at ’.
Since we first learned of its existence, we’ve been asking for the complete record of the communications data between MH and Inmarsat’s satellite network.